You are currently browsing the category archive for the ‘Algebraic Geometry’ category.

In this post, we discuss a few ways in which the symmetric and alternating groups can be realized as finite collections of self-maps on the Riemann sphere. Throughout, our group operation will be composition of functions: as such, the maps we choose will necessarily be homeomorphisms of . Within this broad framework, two classes are of particular interest:

1. The group of biholomorphic maps (those that respect the structure of as a Riemann surface). It is well-known that such maps are given by Möbius transformations, i.e. rational functions of the form

satisfying . The group of Möbius transformations (also known as the *Möbius Group* and herein denoted ) is naturally isomorphic to , the projective (special) linear group, via:

2. The group of *conformal* maps , denoted for brevity. To be clear, here we refer to those maps which preserve **unsigned** angle measure. *(In contrast, some authors require conformal maps to preserve orientation as well.)* We recall the fundamental result that such maps contain the Möbius group as a subgroup of index two. To be specific, any conformal self-map on is either biholomorphic (returning to case (1)), or bijective and *anti-holomorphic*: a biholomorphic function of the complex conjugate .

After the fold, we begin a two-part program to calculate the maximal such that the symmetric group injects into (resp. ). Along the way, we study injections of the alternating group into , and highlight some exceptional cases in which our injections can be attached to group actions on a finite invariant set.

In 1946, S. Bochner published the paper *Formal Lie Groups, *in which he noted that several classical theorems (due to Sophus Lie) concerning infinitesimal transformations on Lie groups continue to hold when the (convergent) power series locally representing the group law was replaced by a suitable formal analogue. It was not long before this formalism found far-reaching uses in algebraic number theory and algebraic topology.

Unfortunately, few students see more than two or three explicit (i.e. closed form) group laws before stumbling into the deep end of abstract nonsense. In this article, we’ll see in a rigorous sense why this ** must** be the case, providing along the way a complete classification of polynomial and rational formal group laws (over any reduced ring).